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A thorough discussion of the theoretical and empirical basis for AFMA’s position that the use of non-human animals as predictive and causal analogical models for human drug and disease response is scientifically untenable is well beyond the parameters of this website. For those interested in pursuing this topic further, we have provided resources and links that will be helpful.


For a listing of books and journal articles that illuminate AFMA’s position, click here.


For a listing of sources of further information related to AFMA’s position and the issues related to biomedical research, click on your topic of interest:


Evolutionary Biology

Complex Systems

Personalized Medicine

Critical Thought


For links to organizations that defend the use of animals as predictive models both from an ethical and scientific perspective, click here.


For additional links of interest to those who wish to explore the many new frontiers in science and biomedical research, click here.



Dr Greek was interviewed by Toronto's Animal Voices. The interview is available from the Animal Voices website.


Dr Greek spoke at the University of Toronto in September 2011. The video is available here.

Drs Greek, Shanks, and Rice's article "The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals" has been published by The Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law. It is available here.


Drs Greek and Shanks' article "Complex systems, evolution, and animal models" has been published in Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences. A pre-print version of the article can be accessed here. To view the article in the form it appears in Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, click here. It is available for a fee.


Dr Rice's article "The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research," was published in Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. It is available here.


Dario Ringach, PhD published an article titled, "The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research," in The American Journal of Medical Sciences. The pdf is available here. We encourage everyone to read it as it does provide the standard arguments presented by AFMA's critics. Dr Greek wrote a short response to Dr Ringach's article that was published in the same issue. A preprint version can be accessed here. The letter, in journal formatting, can be accessed here for a fee. Also see Dr Greek's blog "Why Debate When You Can Publish Unopposed Nonsense?" where he addresses Dr Ringach's article.



Books and journal articles that illuminate and support AFMA’s position


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Recommended Reading on Evolutionary Biology



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Recommended Reading on Complex Systems



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Recommended Reading on Personalized Medicine



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Recommended Reading on Critical Thought



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Additional Links of Interest




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Organizations That Defend Animal-based Research Americans for Medical Progress Foundation for Biomedical Research National Association for Biomedical Research RDS Understanding Animal Research in Medicine



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